Instruction in Education

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Instruction in education or commonly used as instruction refers to a set of conditions or events established to aid learners in accomplishing specific objectives.

The Three (3) Types of instruction

Web-based instruction

This utilizes the Internet to facilitate learning, this method became particularly useful during the COVID-19 pandemic. One greatest advantage of this is the promotion of 21st-century skills.

Computer-based instruction

This is the type of instruction that is technology-driven and suitable for self-study and improves access to learning resources.

Face-to-face instruction

This is commonly employed in Ghanaian schools, it offers immediate feedback, cost-effective, enhanced communication, and simple to use or apply.


The key difference between computer-based and web-based instruction is the use of the internet inweb-based instruction.

Instruction should align with national aspirations, serving as a channel to propel the country towards its goals.

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A lesson plan provides a detailed outline of instructional content. Teachers create lesson plans to ensure meaningful teaching, taking into account factors such as learners’ prior knowledge, interests, age, interests, cultural backgrounds, and national goals.

Stating of Learning Objectives

In stating objectives, it is important to use the SMART criteria (Specific, Measurable, Achievable, Realistic, Time-bound) and the of appropriate action verbs to make lesson or teaching process effective.

It is expected that the objective is coined in this or similar manner ‘By the end of the lesson, students should be able to

Lesson objectives can be stated by writing it on the board, verbalizing it, making students to write it, or projecting it after introduction of a topic.

Importance of Lesson Objectives

  • Objectives make the general planning for an assessment procedure easier through the knowledge of specific outcomes.
  • The selection, designing and construction of assessment instruments depend on knowing which specific outcome should be assessed.
  • Evaluating an existing assessment instrument becomes easier when specific outcomes are known.
  • They help to judge the content relevance of an assessment procedure. Specific learning outcomes provide information for the judgment.

Teaching and learning resources (TLRs)

These are materials used to enhance understanding, categorized into audio, visual, and audio-visual formats. The relevance of TLMs in teaching and learning is to motivate, create access, and provide opportunity for hands-on during the teaching process.

Visual teaching and learning materials (VTLMs) are projected for learners to view. They are divided into two types: projected and non-projected.

Projected Visual teaching and learning materials include smart boards, slide projectors, opaque projectors

Non-projected Visual teaching and learning materials include graphs, drawings, maps etc

Effective Use of the Chalkboard or the Marker board

During lesson delivery, the chalkboard is typically partitioned into three sections. The middle section is designated for the topic, while the core points are presented on the left end and continued at the right end if the left end is exhausted.

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